Africa And Dictatorships – 1960-1977

1950-1977: South Africa is the birthplace of the Apartheid. International sanctions are imposed on South Africa.

Pretoria does not have diplomatic relations with many Third World countries (especially Mexico, India, Black Africa, Iraq, and Guyana) and Communist Bloc(USSR, East Germany, Cuba and the People’s Republic of China).

The World refuses to recognize South African puppet “Republic of Transkei”. The United Nations adopts a resolution denouncing the Apartheid.

The first nuclear reactor in SA is put into operation. Ironically, the Apartheid dictatorship is an advocate for Olympic sports and animal rights in Africa. SA maintains good diplomatic relations with Israel, Taiwan, South Korea, Chile, Guatemala, Paraguay, El Salvador and Malawi.

1960-1977: In Ivory Coast, currently Cote d’Ivoire, Houphouet-Boigny family has absolute power. Marie-Therese Houphouet-Boigny, the first lady of Ivory Coast, is best known for her nickname “Jacqueline Kennedy of Africa “. She loves French culture.

1960-1977: In Malawi, a small country in the Central Africa, Hastings Kamuzu Banda becomes president for life. Malawi recognizes the Republic of South Africa. Amnesty International reports government forces practice torture.

1965-1977: Mobutu Sese Seko becomes dictator of Zaire (currently Democratic Republic of Congo). He is the World’s richest dictator in the Third World, but Zaire is one of the most poorest countries in the world.

Like in Kenya, Uganda and Swazilandia, several Mercedes Benz are imported from Western Europe. The country’s economy is gradually dominated by Mobutu family. He maintained control over the population thought his secret police organization. Zaire, an ex-French colony, is by far the largest country in Africa.

1965-1977: Rhodesia, currently Zimbabwe, becomes independent country under Prime Minister Ian Smith. Like South Africa, Rhodesia is a country under the Apartheid. To African country, an ex-British colony is one of the few nations in the world in which racial minority controls the government. Black Africa severs diplomatic relations with Rhodesia.

1966-1977: Jean-Bedell Bokassa is reelected chairman of the Movement for l’volution Sociale de l’Afrique Noire (MESAN).Under the dictatorship of Bokassa, Elisabeth Domitien becomes the first woman Prime Minister in the African history.

Many nations, including the USSR, Libya, China, France, Israel and Taiwan, compete for influence in the Central African Republic. With the economy in chaos, Bokassa proclaimed himself emperor of the new Central African Empire.

1968-1977: Swaziland becomes independent country under the leadership of King Sobhuza. Swaziland establishes diplomatic relations with Taiwan and Israel. Like many dictators, Sobhuza built himself five palaces. The Kingdom of Swaziland, an ex-colony British, is a slightly bigger than Hawaii.

1969-1977: Monarchy is abolished by the Libyan Revolution. Moammar el-Khadafy emerged as dictator of the Libyan Revolution. The Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya has only one legal political party. Libya has diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, East Germany, Hungary and Black Africa.

1970-1977: Under the leadership of Mohammed Siad Barred, Somalia became a Socialist Republic. Somalia is one of the most poorest nations in the Third World.

1971-77: In Kampala, Uganda, ex- British colony, Idi Amin Dada took power. Under the regime of Idi Amin Dada, Uganda is one of the worst dictatorships in the modern history. The dictatorship severs diplomatic relations with Israel and Great Britain. He has a passion for Olympic sports.

John Akii-Bua, famous sportsman, is one of the athletes of Uganda sent abroad by African dictator. Different from Daniel arap Moi and Pieter Willem Botha (South African president: 1984-1989), the African wildlife was destroyed by Idi Amin Dada.

1974-1977: Monarchy is abolished after the Ethiopian Revolution. Ethiopia is a socialist country. Under the leadership of Mengistu Haile Mariam, the country has one of the worst famine in the history. More than 1 million people died. His government has been compared to Pol Pot regime.

REFERENCES:
– Caputo, Robert. “Etiopía Revolution in Ancient Empire”; National Geographic, Washington DC, may 1983

-Encyclopaedia Británica Book of The Year 1977, 1981, 1984, Encyclopaedia Britannica. Chicago

-Guevara Onofre, Alejandro. Enciclopedia Mundototal , Editorial San Marcos, Lima 1999

-Howard, James. “Democracia y Éxito Económico”, Diario El Comercio, Lima, 25 de agosto de 1993-

-Huntington, Samuel. The Third Wave. Democratization in the Latre Twentieth Century, University Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1991-

-Informe sobre Desarrollo Humano 1991-2004, PNUD, New York

-Revel, Jean-Francois. El rechazo del Estado, Editorial Planeta, Barcelona, 1985-

-M´Bokolo, Elikia. « Africa : ¿campo de batalla o laboratorio de la democracia ? », Correo de la Unesco, París, noviembre de 1992

-Rothstein, Robert. « Democracia, Conflicto y Desarrollo en el Tercer Mundo », Revista Ciencia Política, Bogotá, 1991

-The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1975-2004, The World Almanac Books, New York, New Jersey

-Vargas Llosa, Mario. “El Lenguaje de la Pasión”, Pesia, Lima, 2001

-Wallechinsy, David-Wallace, Irving. The People´s Almanac 2, Batam Book Inc, 1979

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