Overall, China’s dairy industry in agriculture is still a relatively backward industry, and per capita milk consumption were significantly below the world average, the gap with more developed countries. China’s dairy industry to narrow the gap with the world and the developed countries, the road ahead is still long, arduous task, requiring the guidance of scientific concept of development, the Chinese dairy industry towards healthy development. But, frankly, the current situation faced by dairy industry structure, mechanism and technical issues there are many, need long-term efforts to resolve them. The following only from the perspective of long-term development strategy, how we can improve the quality and safety of our dairy industry to put forward three proposals:
(A) changes in food quality and safety control mode
In food quality and safety management system, now our country’s “multi-sector by sub-links-style management.” “Sanlu milk powder” incidents reveal that there are three aspects of regulatory approach: First, unclear division of labor between sectors, not thin, resulting in gaps between control areas (for example, before, because milk station link between production and circulation, and are thus, resulting in lack of supervision on the milk stand); Second, there are specific links in the blind spot monitoring, some of the toxic and harmful substances are not included in the scope of regulation (for example, melamine and other toxic and hazardous substances) ; Third, there is no specific regulatory responsibility assigned to individuals, the responsibility for the problem can not be traced back to human, causing regulators is idle. The existence of these defects is of food quality and safety of the main causes of the accident-prone, therefore, it is necessary to improve the design of the system. According to China’s specific national conditions, to recommend improvements in the system, the current practice of “multi-sector by sub-links-style management model”, into “a single sector by product chain management model.”
Paradigm shift in the process of monitoring, it is important to distinguish between specific products. Any industry chain is short, this early processing of products (for example, meat, eggs, liquid milk, etc.) can use the “single sector by product chain management model”, that full regulation by the agricultural sector. Those who need to extend the industrial chain, belonging to deep processing (eg, in meat, eggs and milk as the raw material of food) products division of responsibility can be implemented by the industry and commerce, technical supervision, food and drug, health and other sectors of the downstream division of supervision.
(B) improve the industrial management mode
In the industrial mode of choice, we should learn from the experience of developed countries, especially the experience of some EU countries. EU countries to go on a family farm-based development path of the modern dairy industry is different from North America to a large modern dairy farm-based development. Therefore, the EU countries the path of development suited to China’s basic national conditions and more, is the development of China’s future dairy industry should work towards.
EU industrial management mode, with our “milk stations + company + farmer” pattern were significantly different. In the EU, generally is one of “co + company + farmers (family farms),” The industrial management pattern, which is run by co-own the company, which farmers are members of cooperatives. Production of milk to the cooperative members, processing of raw milk by the cooperative unity, unified product sales by cooperatives, the company’s profits from the cooperatives, companies and members to share. In other words, cooperatives, companies and farmers is a real community of interests. This is the EU’s dairy industry has been able to achieve long-term sustainable and stable development of the root causes.
Although China is actively promoting development of rural grassroots cooperatives, but has now set up a simple production cooperatives are cooperatives, as co-operatives do not enter the field of processing and distribution, company entrance of the members can not share the downstream sectors of the industry’s excess profits, Therefore, the farmers lack of company entrance of positive incentives, their enthusiasm for the establishment of cooperatives is not high. Even so, despite the setting up production cooperatives, also difficult to form cooperatives and leading enterprises in the interests of the reasonable distribution, and then make milk into a virtuous circle of development. Therefore, in the long run, China’s current industrialization should gradually improve the business model of “co + company + farmer” in the industrial business model.
(C) go to the family farm-based scale of the Road
At present, small-scale dairy operations (backyard households), milk production accounts for about 60% share of market supply. On the other hand, in many low-income areas, the revenue raising cows for many low-income households main source of livelihood. Although, these backyard farmers that currently do exist, so the problem, but they must not be pushed out beyond the ranks of milk producers. Government departments need to do is how to make our management system to better serve the small-scale dairy farmers, not to crowd out the small-scale dairy farmers outside the modern dairy production systems.
Throughout the development of world dairy production process, have experienced by small-scale to large-scale, by the chief industry of the transition to the professional phase of the transition. China is now in this transition, drawing on the experience and lessons of developed countries, we will be detours. Correct guidance by the government, some with backyard farmers to gradually upgrade the conditions of family farms, is a gateway for China’s basic national conditions of modern dairy science development. Family farms in some EU countries is the combination of intensive farming operations and an effective carrier. In China, the only great efforts to cultivate the family farm, can the dairy industry for the development of economical society to establish and contribute to ecological civilization construction.
The future development of China’s dairy industry, should be avoided to the “factory” farming the old road. Major Western countries, especially in North America large “factory” farming methods, has lead to new disease outbreaks, environmental pollution, animal welfare and other issues down. Avoid these problems is to develop appropriate effective way to scale farming, that is, learn from the experience of EU countries, to develop the family ranch, the first dairy in size from dozens to one, 200 range. Government departments should be more control of public resources used to support small-scale farmers, farmers in those conditions to progressively upgrade the backyard for the family farm households. BOLA TANGKAS