SEVEN DEADLY SINS
The Seven Deadly Sins, also known as the Capital Vices or Cardinal Sins, is a classification of the most objectionable vices that has been used since early Christian times to educate and instruct followers concerning (immoral) fallen humanity’s tendency to sins. The final version of the list consists of: 1.Wrath or anger; 2. Greed; 3.Sloth; 4.Pride; 5.Lust; 6 .Envy; and 7.Gluttony
In the Book of Proverbs, it is stated that the Lord specifically regards “six things the Lord hateth, and the seventh His soul detesteth.” namely: 1A proud look;2.A lying tongue; 3.Hands that shed innocent blood; 4.A heart that devises wicked plots; 5.Feet that are swift to run into mischief; 6.A deceitful witness that uttereth lies; and 7.Him that soweth discord among brethren.
All of the wrong doings mentioned as above, are included in seven deadly sins.
Anger : Anger is a feeling related to one’s perception of having been offended/wronged and a tendency to undo that wrongdoing by retaliation. R. Novaco recognized three modalities of anger: (i) cognitive (appraisals), (ii) somatic-affective (tension and agitations) and (iii) behavioral (withdrawal and antagonism). Anger may have physical correlates such as increased heart rate, blood pressure, and levels of adrenaline and noradrenalin. Some view anger as part of the fight or fight brain response to the perceived threat of harm. Anger becomes the predominant feeling behaviorally, cognitively, and physiologically when a person makes the conscious choice to take action to immediately stop the threatening behavior of another outside force. The English term originally comes from the term anger of Old Norse language. Anger can have many physical and mental consequences.
The external expression of anger can be found in facial expressions, body language, physiological responses, and at times in public acts of aggression. Humans and animals for example make loud sounds, attempt to look physically larger, bare their teeth, and stare. The behaviors associated with anger are designed to warn aggressors to stop their threatening behavior. Rarely does a physical altercation occur without the prior expression of anger by at least one of the participants. While most of those who experience anger explain its arousal as a result of “what has happened to them,” psychologists point out that an angry person can be very well mistaken because anger causes a loss in self-monitoring capacity and objective observability.
Modern psychologists view anger as a primary, natural, and mature emotion experienced by all humans at times, and as something that has functional value for survival. Anger can mobilize psychological resources for corrective action. Uncontrolled anger can, however, negatively affect personal or social well- being. While many philosophers and writers have warned against the spontaneous and uncontrolled fits of anger, there has been disagreement over the intrinsic value of anger. Dealing with anger has been addressed in the writings of the earliest philosophers up to modern times. Modern psychologists, in contrast to the earlier writers, have also pointed out the possible harmful effects of suppression of anger.
Neuroscience has shown that emotions are generated by multiple structures in the brain. The rapid, minimal, and evaluative processing of the emotional significance of the sensory data is done when the data passes through the amygdala in its travel from the sensory organs along certain neural pathways towards the limbic forebrain. Emotion caused by discrimination of stimulus features, thoughts, or memories, however, occurs when its information is relayed from the thalamus to the neocortex .Based on some statistical analysis, some scholars have suggested that the tendency for anger may be genetic. Distinguishing between genetic and environmental factors however requires further research and actual measurement of specific genes and environments.
2. Greed : Greed (Latin, avaritia), also known as avarice or covetousness, is, like lust and gluttony, a sin of excess. However, greed (as seen by the church) is applied to a very excessive or rapacious desire and pursuit of wealth, status, and power. St. Thomas Aquinas wrote that greed was “a sin against God, just as all mortal sins, in as much as man condemns things eternal for the sake of temporal things.” “Avarice” is more of a blanket term that can describe many other examples of greedy behavior. These include disloyalty, deliberate betrayal or treason, especially for personal gain, for example through bribery . Scavenging and hoarding of materials or objects, theft and robbery, especially by means of violence, trickery or manipulation of authority are all actions that may be inspired by greed. Such misdeeds can include simony, where one profits from soliciting goods within the actual confines of a church.
As defined outside of Christian writings, greed is an inordinate desire to acquire or possess more than one needs or deserves, especially with respect to material wealth.
3. Sloth: In the Christian moral tradition, sloth (Latin: acedia, accidia, pigritia) is one of the seven capital sins, often called the seven deadly sins; these sins are called the capital sins because they destroy the charity in a man’s heart and thus may lead to eternal death.
Sloth is defined as spiritual or emotional apathy, neglecting what God has spoken, and being physically and emotionally inactive. Sloth can also indicate a wasting due to lack of use, concerning a person, place, thing, skill, or intangible ideal that would require maintenance, refinement, or support to continue to exist.
Religious views concerning the need for one to work to support society and further God’s plan and work also suggest that, through inactivity, one invites the desire to sin. “For Satan finds some mischief still for idle hands to do.”
4. Pride : Pride is, depending on the interactional and cultural context, either a high sense of one’s personal status (i.e., leading to judgments’ of personality and character) or the specific mostly positive emotion that is a product of praise or independent self-reflection. Philosophers and social psychologists have noted that pride is a complex secondary emotion which requires the development of a sense of self and the mastery of relevant conceptual distinctions (e.g., that pride is distinct from happiness and joy) through language-based interaction with others. Some social psychologists identify it as linked to a signal of high social status. One definition of pride in the first sense comes from St.Augustine : “the love of one’s own excellence”. In this sense, the opposite of pride is humility.
Pride is sometimes viewed as excessive or as a vice, sometimes as proper or as a virtue. While some philosophers such as Aristotle (and George Bernard Shaw) consider pride a profound virtue, most world religions consider it a sin.
According to the Concise Oxford Dictionary, proud comes from late Old English prut, probably from Old French prud “brave, valiant” (11th century) (which became preux in French), from Late Latin term prodis “useful”, which is compared with the Latin prodesse “be of use”.The sense of “having a high opinion of oneself”, not in French, may reflect the Anglo-Saxons’ opinion of the Norman knights who called themselves “proud”, like the French knights preux.
When viewed as a virtue, pride in one’s appearance and abilities are known as virtuous pride, greatness of soul or magnanimity, but when viewed as a vice it is often termed vanity or vainglory. Pride can also manifest itself as a high opinion of one’s nation (national pride) and ethnicity (ethnic pride).
5. Lust : Lust is a craving for sexual intercourse, which can sometimes assume a violent or self-indulgent character. In the three major Abrahamic religions, it is considered a sin.
The word lust is phonetically similar to the ancient Roman “lustrum”, which literally meant “five years”. This was the cycle time for the ritual expiation of “sins” called the lustration as practiced in ancient Greek and Roman cultures. Sexual intercourse was one of a list of sins requiring lustration.
The word “lust” moved closer to its present meaning in the 16th century with its use in the Protestant Reformation’s early non-Latin Bible translations. This is despite the fact that the original Koine Greek Bible has no single word that is uniquely translated as heterosexual lust. Today, the meaning of the word still has differing meanings as shown in the Merriam-Webster definition. Lust: 1. a: pleasure, delight b: personal inclination: wish 2. intense or unbridled sexual desire: lasciviousness 3. a: intense longing: craving b: enthusiasm, eagerness .
6. Envy : Envy (also called invidiousness) is best defined as an emotion that “occurs when a person lacks another’s (perceived)) superior quality, achievement, or possession and either desires it or wishes that the other lacked it.”
Envy can also derive from a sense of low self-esteem that results from an upward social comparison threatening a person’s self image: another person has something that the envier considers to be important to have. If the other person is perceived to be similar to the envier, the aroused envy will be particularly intense, because it signals to the envier that it just as well could have been he or she who had the desired object.
Bertrand Russell said envy was one of the most potent causes of unhappiness. It is a universal and most unfortunate aspect of human nature because not only is the envious person rendered unhappy by his envy, but also wishes to inflict misfortune on others. Although envy is generally seen as something negative, Russell also believed that envy was a driving force behind the movement towards democracy and must be endured in order to achieve a more just social system.
Envy is one of the Seven deadly sins of the Catholic Church. The Book of Exodus states: “You shall not covet your neighbor house; you shall not covet your neighbor wife, or male or female slave, or ox, or donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbor.”
In Islam, envy (Hassad in Arabic) can destroy one’s good deeds. Therefore, one must be content with what God has given to them by saying Maashallah (God has willed it).
7. Gluttony : derived from the Latin gluttire meaning to gulp down or swallow, means over-indulgence and over-consumption of food, drink, or intoxicants to the point of waste. In some Christian denominations, it is considered one of the seven deadly sins—a misplaced desire of food or its withholding from the needy.
Gluttony is not universally considered a sin; depending on the culture, it can be seen as either a vice or a sign of status. The relative affluence of the society can affect this view both ways. A wealthy group might take pride in the security of having enough food to eat to show it off, but it could also result in a moral backlash when confronted with the reality of those less fortunate.